Basic research and frontier exploration
1.Morpho-Genetic Composite MaterialsWe have proposed the concept of Morpho-Genetic Composite Materials for the first time and developed technical principle and preparation methods to realize the conversion from biostructure to oxides, metal and related composites materials with novel characteristic of photonic, electric, magnetic, heat and catalysis.
The research revealed the couple principles between a series of hierarchical fine structures and compositions, which provided new pathway and practical synthesis methods to construct novel high-performance structural and functional integrated materials. The related research results have won the first prize of Natural Science Award of Shanghai city in 2014, and been highly reported by U.S. consulting firm "FROST & SULLIVAN"、the journal of American Materials Research Society “MRS Bulletin”、the web “TRN Research News” and Discovery, the American famous science channel.
2.Bioinspired Thermal Energy MaterialsThis team is focused on developing advanced thermal energy materials by taking bioinspiratoin from nature and revealing the relationship between materials’ structure and properties.
The charging speed for solar-thermal energy storage has been doubled by the bioinspired photon-transportation based new storage materials. The detection resolution of the uncooled bioinspired thermal infrared detection material has reached less than 5μm. The bioinspired photothermal conversion efficiency reaches more than 90%. The bioinspired phas-change based thermal conduction materials have demonstrated an effective thermal conductivity more than 20 000 W/ m K, which is 50 times of the conductivity of copper.
3.Graphene Functional MaterialsWe have successfully prepared a series of composite materials via a combination of chemical method and ultrasound effect, through which, the controllable growth of functional nanoparticles on the surface of graphene and formation of interface chemical ponds are realized.
Great progress has been made in the fields of preparation of single layer graphene, microstructure control and the low cost and large scale fabrication of graphene. High performance fiber, paper and aerogel based on graphene has been developed and fabricated with scalable methods, and the related technologies are waiting for pilot plant tests.
4.Perovskite Solar CellExpand the theory of photovoltaics for perovskite solar cells; invent film deposition methods for high quality perovskite films; develop new functional nano-structures; realized highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells and modules; provide fundamental understanding for novel solar cells; publications on journals like Nature, Science, etc.; three world records of the highest efficiency for perovskite solar cells and modules.
5.Photoelectrocatalytic and Energy-Storage MaterialsThe research group has developed the vapor-deposition metal oxides membrane electrode and the surface catalysis theory; laid the foundation of the development of new-type oxide/graphene electrode materials.
The as-invented new-type hollow lithium battery cathode material has very high lithium storage capacity, which is nearly 5 times the conventional graphite cathode materials. The as-prepared Ti doped α-Fe2O3 photoanode using atmosphere pressure chemical vapor deposition shows the world’s highest photoelectrochemical performance. They also replaced Pt catalyst by α-Fe2O3 and got better surface hydrogen evolution reaction performance than Pt.
6.Lithium-ion Battery MaterialsLithium ion Battery Materials reveals the mutual relationship of the fabrication process, electrical/electrochemical properties and air stability of garnet-type solid lithium-ion electrolyte. It also demonstrates a 3D-structured graphene-based material with high electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery electrode.
Solid lithium-ion electrolyte with ion conductivity of 4-6×10-4 S cm-1 is synthesized via multistep sintering process.
MoS2/graphene nanocomposites for electrode material is fabricated by in situ growth. Its specific capacity of 1009.4 mAh g-1 reaches three times that of commercial anode.
7.Biological adhesive controllable materialThe research group designs a new system of supramolecular materials with functions including external stimuli, conformation, structures and specific recognition, achieving the controllable cell adhersion from microscopy to macroscopy.
Based on the chiral transference from molecules to supramolecular nanostructures, they synthesized chiral supramolecular hydrogel for the first time. And then, they investigated the influences of chiral nanostructures on cell behaviors, which proves that the left-handed nanofibers promote the cell adhersion and proliferation.
Until now, the group has published more than 80 research articles, which are cited by other researchers more than 1000 times. Besides, they applied 6 national invention patents, and 4 of them have been authored.
8.Bio-Functional Materials Based on Hierarchical Self-assemblyStudy on bio-functional materials for diagnosis and treatment using the principle of hierarchical self-assembly. The hierarchical compounds are achieved at a high efficiency based on multi-component molecular, nano-, or micro-materials. The relationship between the structure and the properties of bio-functional materials based on hierarchical self-assembly is revealed. The polysaccharide-based nano-suitcases are fabricated at a high efficiency, which is more than a thousand fold of that of the traditional micellization method. The polysaccharide-based nano-suitcases have successfully been applied for the targeted diagnosis and treatment of tumor lymphatic metastasis. The specific recognition and diagnosis of tumor is achieved via multi-function self-assembly microcapsules with hierarchical composite structures.
9.Suspension Array Biochips Based on Fluorescent Nanomaterials
• Liquid Biochip is a high throughput, large-scale, and multiplexed screening platform used in bioassay, which allows for the simultaneous testing of multiple biomarkers through the use of optical-encoded microbeads.
• We have mastered technologies of synthesizing quantum dots and encoded microbeads, biomolecules coupling and clinical multiplexed detection of biomarkers.
• Our technologies have been validated in multiplexed detection of tumor markers, gastritis factors and hepatitis B viruses, and we aim to realize their further clinical translation.
10.Synthesis and Application of Functional Micro-Nano Materials
• Novel synthetic method and single wavelength encoding theory were developed for fluorescent nanoparticles encoded microbeads with tunable optical properties, which can be utilized for high throughput and multiplexed detection of biomarkers.
• Semimetal nanopartlcles were synthesized via facile route. The multifunctional nanoparticles as efficient cancer theranostic agents, coupled with the fast clearance and low toxicity shed light on future use of semimetal nanoparticles for biomedicine.
• Doped quantum dots and nanocomposites were designed and synthesized for white LED. Doped quantum dots (or other analogs) with large Stokes shift can be a good solution for reabsorption of multiphase phosphors. QD@silica nanocomposites with tunable refractive index and good compatibility with polymer may prove to be promising light conversion candidates for alternative light sources.
11.Effect on Submicron Crystal Materials Structure and Properties from Electric PulseThe electric pulse can significantly change the microstructure evolution path of materials and extend the characteristic parameters of the microstructure of materials, and provide a new wide space for the preparation of new materials.
The electric pulse annealing can rapidly strengthen the submicron pure aluminum. Short-time electric pulse annealing can reduce the dislocation density without causing the growth of grain. Electric pulse annealing under liquid nitrogen environment can precipitate out the dense nanophase, improving the performance of materials.
12.Non-equilibrium solidification and metastable materialsBuilt up a theoretical model for the solidification of undercooled eutectic alloys, elucidated the formation mechanism for the microstructure of deep undercooled single phase alloy and eutectic alloy, developed a topological criteria for the composition design of amorphous alloys and disclosed the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties for the homogeneous deformation of amorphous alloys. Published over 100 papers and cited by more than 1000 times.
13.Nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnetic materialThe researches reveal the grain orientation-growth mechanism of nanocrystalline hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets, elucidate the mechanism of the control of grain boundary on the magnetic hardening. Relevant researches are of great significance to reduce the use of rare earth minerals such as Dy and Tb.
The maximum magnetic energy of the hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnet can reach 411kJ/m3(N50). Using grain boundary diffusion technique, the coercivity and maximum magnetic energy of the hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnet can reach 2.0T and 322kJ/m3(N40), respectively. A new process for simultaneously improving the coercivity and remanence of hot-deformed magnets is developed.
14.Multi Scale Micro-Nano Architecture Fabrication routed by Electrochemical TechnologyThe researches reveal the precise control mechanism of micro-nano scale structure manufacturing, the physical design mechanism of heterogeneous structure interface and the microevolution mechanism of service interface.
The high depth and width ratio (> 10:1) vertical copper interconnection with silicon through hole technology is developed, the high-precision high-density micro convex point (<5um) interconnection forming technology is invented, and the high reliability low temperature (<200 oC) solid-state bonding technology is also developed.
15.Lead Free Piezoelectric Materials
Phase coexistence method has been used to design KNN-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with high piezoelectricity. By controlling the crystal growth kinetics, Zinc stannate single crystal 2D nanoplates have been prepared successfully. Our research provides a basis for the lead-free piezoelectric materials and their applications in the field of transducers, piezoelectric damping, and flexible sensors.
• The lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with d33 = 470 pC / N and kp = 53%, which are comparable to those of PZT ceramics, have been obtained.
• Without polarization, the d33 value of the 2D piezoelectric nanocomposite / PDMS piezoelectric composite can reach up to 49 pC/N. It is the highest value reported in lead-free organic-inorganic piezoelectric composites.
• The piezoelectric damping composite has a loss factor larger than 0.5.
16.Materials Genome Project
Materials Genome Project integrates comprehensive advantages between material science and other science and engineering fields of Shanghai Jiaotong University. Based on the concept of material genome, material science theory and calculation, experiment and data technology can be collaboratively developed, which accelerates innovation in material research and application under the new paradigm.
Materials Genome Project has taken the lead to establish university-level interdisciplinary platform-Shanghai Jiaotong University Materials Genome Research Center, build Materials Genome Asia Research Center based on the Materials Project with professor Gerberd Ceder in MIT, participate in the construction of Shanghai Materials Genome Project Research Institute as a major member and co-build High Throughput in Situ Preparation and Characterization of Material Station with Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility.
Application research and technical achievements
► Light-weight and High-strength Materials
1.Ignition-proof Magnesium AlloyThe addition of surface active elements, including rare earth elements and calcium, would change the constitution and growth kinetics of the oxide layer. The forming of compact oxide composites would increase the ignition temperature of the melt. The invention of JDZM magnesium alloy has made it possible for preparing magnesium alloys without gas protection.
• Innovative methods for the measurement of ignition temperature, the computation of thermodynamics and kinetics in oxidation, and the structural analyzation of oxide layer, as well as the founded oxide module for Ignition-proof magnesium alloy has been widely referred in the following researches. Single article citation has exceeded 100 times;
• Realization of melt and processing of magnesium alloys without gas protection;
• The research results won the Second prize of National Science and Technology Progress in 2003.
2.High-houghness & Corrosion-resistance Magnasium alloyThe intersection of rare earth elements and zinc would promote non-basal slip and enhance the plasticity of alloys, while the reducing of potential difference between precipitates and matrix would enhance the corrosion resistance of alloys. As a result, a high-toughness and corrosion-resistance magnesium alloy JDM1 has been developed.
• Mg-RE alloys JDM1 possess excellent comprehensive mechanical properties (strength and toughness), casting processing property, as well as corrosion-resist property close to aluminum alloys.
• The technology has won the first prize of Shanghai Technological Invention in 2010, granted 2 patents and published over 20 papers in SCI.
3.High-strength Magnesium AlloyThe study on the design and develop of high-strength magnesium alloys has clarified the alloying principle of heavy rare earth elements and precipitation mechanism, established the theory basements for designing new generation high strength Mg-RE alloys. The high strength Mg-RE alloy with yield stress of more than 500 MPa has been developed.
The research result include 23 patents and more than 80 SCI papers and has been widely applied in fields like aviation, aerospace, and weapons.
4.Heat-resistant magnesium alloyIn order to solve the disadvantages of low heat-resistance in magnesium alloys, JDM3 alloys with excellent high temperature strength, fatigue strength, creep resistance, and wear resistance has been developed based on JDM2 alloys. Core unit consisted of LPSO and precipitates with high thermal stability and dispersed GB precipitates have been introduced for compound strengthening.
• The working temperature can exceed 300 ℃, under which the UTS remains 300 MPa. The comprehensive property surpasses Al-AC8A alloys.
• The research involves 3 invention patents, as well as more than 20 SCI papers.
• The technology has won first prize of Shanghai Technological Invention in 2007.
5.Ultra light magnesium-lithium alloyThe research on the design and development of ultra light magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) alloy was carried out. The aging mechanism of Mg-Li alloy and the strengthening mechanism of rare earth element to improve Mg-Li alloy’s thermal stability were elucidated. A high-performance Mg-Li alloy with density less than 1.55g/cm3 and ultimate tensile strength higher than 270MPa was developed.
3 invention patents were authorized, and more than 10 Science Citation Index papers were published.
6.In Situ Aluminum Mmatrix CompositesAdding the basic components of the ceramic to the aluminum melt to synthesize ceramic particles, controlling growth and dispersing particles, purifying melt and regulating organization, casting technology and equipment.
Inventing the preparation and processing technology of melt-control synthesized aluminum matrix composites, awarded the First Prize of Technological Invention from the Ministry of Education and 43 national invention patents.
7.SiC Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix CompositesAdvanced aluminum matrix composite has been fabricated via adding high performance ceramic reinforcing materials into the aluminum matrix, which exhibits a combination of optimized properties in strength, modulus and plastic, and realize the control of the material properties through artificial design and compositing.
The property of the material has reach international advanced level and the capability of Multi-varieties design and large scale production of high-performance aluminum matrix composite material has also been successfully developed, based on which the first technical standard of aluminum matrix composite material for aerospace application was established.
The related work won the Second Class National Prize of Natural Science, and obtained more than 20 national invention patents.
8.High-Strength High-Modulus High-Damping Nano-carbon Aluminum Alloy CompositesBased on innovative biomimetic composite principle and flake powder metallurgy technology, the key technique problems of nano-carbon aluminum alloy composites, such as Homogeneous dispersion of CNT and graphene and control of interface reaction, have been resolved through novel nano-lamination structure design. Great progress has been made in the fabrication, control of composition and properties, texturing processing and heat treatment of nano-carbon aluminum alloy. Based on the work, the first research paper on the reinforcement effect of graphene on aluminum alloy has been published, and the first national invention patent of graphene reinforced aluminum alloy has also been authorized.
·successful fabrication of 200kg-class large-size powder metallurgy ingot billets and processing of hot extrusion profile with industrial specifications.
·published more than 30 research papers in international journals, and obtain more than 10 national invention patents.
9.Spray Molding High Performance Aluminum AlloySpray forming is an advanced solidification technology. Compared with the semi-continuous casting technology, its advantages are that the chemical composition has no macroscopic segregation, and the grain size and other microstructures are fined by an order of magnitude. Our team has developed a high-alloyed and large-size solidified billet. Our high-strength aluminum alloy products, represented by 7055 aluminum alloy, have been the first to realize engineering in China and successfully applied in the compressor components of "Tiangong 2" space station, and have filled the gap in the domestic technology.
·Established the first industry standard and three national standards in the field of spray forming in our country.
·Obtained more than 20 national invention patents.
10.High-ductility HPDC Al alloyIn view of the low plasticity of traditional die casting aluminum alloys, the JDA1 and JDA2 aluminum alloys with high strength and toughness were developed by eliminating the needle brittle iron phase, optimizing alloy composition, refining microstructure, in combination with the rapid solidification characteristics of die casting technology.
• Die casting alloys without heat treatment could generate similar properties as SF-36 alloys after T6 treatment.
• Excellent die casting processing property with 2 patens granted.
11.Light-weight High-rigidity cast Aluminum-lithium AlloyIn view of the problem of serious anisotropy and inability to fabricate complicated structures existing in wrought Al-Li alloys, fully use the advantages of reducing the density and increasing the modulus with Li addition. The composition of the Al-Li alloy was optimized, and combining with low-pressure sand casting process, a light-weight high-rigidity cast Al-Li alloy with high Li content was developed.
After heat-treatment, the yield strength of the alloy exceeds 350MPa, the tensile strength exceeds 400MPa, the elongation exceeds 4%, the density of the alloy is less than 2.6g /cm3 and the elastic modulus reaches 80GPa. Compared with ZL201A aluminum alloy, the density decreases by 10% and the elastic modulus increased by 15%.
3 national invention patents were authorized, and more than 10 SCI papers were published.
12.In-Situ Titanium Matrix CompositesThe discontinuous reinforcements were in-situ synthesized in titanium matrix, and reasonably controlled the morphology, size, and distribution, substantially improving the high temperature properties of titanium matrix composites. The composites remain high specific strength and high specific stiffness in 450-700℃, which are one of the candidates for high temperature component, such as ultra-high speed spacecraft and next generation of aero-engine.
We have developed the largest in-situ titanium matrix composites ingot (Φ580 mm, 1.5 tons) with different size of bars in the world, obtaining 20 patents and win the National Natural Science Award (second class).
13.In-Situ Titanium Matrix CompositesIn Ni based composite, the in-situ synthesized reinforcement is uniformly distributed in pure nickel or nickel superalloy matrix. Ni based composite can be used to prepare casting which mainly services under high temperature due to its excellent high temperature properties.
Moreover, the conflict between high temperature properties and good processing characteristics of equiaxed grain casting nickel superalloy can be well resolved by the design of Ni based composite, which makes the preparation of large size casting with complex structure for the hot end parts of next generation aircraft engines can be achieved.
14.Design and development of QPT high strength steelFor the design and development of the QPT treated high strength steels with low hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility, the proposed novel Q-P-T heat treatment technology has been used to provide guidance for the realization of the production of the new generation of automobile steel which has a product of strength and elongation higher than 30 GPa%. The precipitated epsilon carbides after Q-P-T treatment can effectively decrease the hydrogen embrittlement sensitive factor from 42.7% to 0.6%, which could meet the requirements for the application of high strength steels in special tough environment.
The design and development of high performance steels, such as the third generation automobile steel, high performance bearing steel and LNG low temperature steel, supported the development of new types of steels in Baosteel. The ultra high strength steel developed has ultimate tensile strength exceeding 2000MPa.
5 authorized national invention patents
15.Research on A New Type Aluminum-containing Austenitic Heat-resistant Steel Used for Ultra Supercritical Pressure BoilerAiming at the key technical problems of boiler tubes of supercritical fossil-fired power plants used under extreme conditions above 700℃, comprehensive factors such as performance and economy should be taken into account in the design of material composition. A new type of alumina-forming austenitic heat-resistant steel (AFA) has been developed, the creep/rupture life of which can reach more than 105h at 700℃/100MPa. And it affords superior oxidation resistance to the traditional high nickel chromium austenitic steel and nickel base superalloy at the high temperature of 800℃ in the air or in the water vapor environment, which is expected to become a candidate material for ultra supercritical power plant boiler tubes above 700℃.
The creep/rupture life of low chromium and medium nickel(Cr≦15%、Ni≦27%) alumina-forming austenitic heat-resistant steel can reach more than 5000h at 700℃/150MPa and more than 2500h at 750℃/125MPa, the high temperature mechanical properties of which should be better than that of NF709 and be close to that of alloy 617.
16.Welding Materials for Nuclear Power PlantsAll of the nickel-based welding materials for nuclear power construction rely on import in China, the key technology of which is formula of electrode covering. PP-Ni152, the key welding material for nuclear power plants manufactured by domestic raw materials (which meets the material standard of ENiCrFe-7 in U.S.), is developed through our research on welding metallurgy of Ni-based alloy. This kind of technology is industrialized and is in the application gradually.
·Anti-DDC susceptibility, the key index, is 20% better than the similar international welding materials.
·Acquire five national invention patents.
17.Welding Materials for LNG ApplicationCored by the pure nickel wires, the Nickel-based welding rod ENiCrFe-9 with an inverse proportion formulation was developed by using the domestic raw materials, which was based on the welding metallurgical principles, alloying principles and the characteristics of all the mineral powder.
Nowadays in China, the ultralow temperature nickel-based rods for SMAW of 9% Ni steel are still all relying on imports. The processing properties of ENiCrFe-9 developed by SJTU is superior to the similar imported welding rods (No “red” phenomenon can be observed during welding, the slag covers uniformly on the bead surface and deslag is very easy). The tensile property is equivalent to the similar imported welding rods and the average ballistic work is 40% higher and 5 national invention patents have been obtained based on the technology.
18.Resin matrix composite propulsor
Aiming at the demand of Marine equipment, a series of high-performance resin matrix composite propeller with a combined properties of seawater corrosion resistance and lightweight and high-strength, which resolved the technological problems of multipage, large incline and the overlapping of propeller and paddle. The key techniques of structure design, mold design, and manufacturing of composite material propellers has been developed.
Single propeller, counter rotating propeller, ducted propeller, pump-jet propeller and the combined propeller have been successfully fabricated with much improved capability of seawater corrosion resistance and reduced weight.
1.Biomedical MaterialsBiodegradable magnesium-based materials, a class of "revolutionary metallic biomaterials", have been applied as new-generation biodegradable cardiovascular stents, orthopedic implants and devices, to obviate a second surgery for implants removal. Through the use of the First principles calculations and MD simulations to quantitatively evaluate the effects of preferred biocompatible alloy elements on the deformation and degradation behavior of magnesium, a patented biomedical magnesium alloy material has been successfully developed, revealing good biocompatibility, favorable mechanical properties and controllable degradation.
Our magnesium alloy bone plate was demonstrated to remain ~70% of the original mechanical strength after 18 weeks of implantation in the femur of the rabbit, and our magnesium alloy stent could maintain the mechanical integrity for at least 16 weeks post implantation into the abdominal aorta of rabbits, both showing great prospect for clinical applications. 20 invention patents have been applied with 9 authorized.
2.High energy Nano-Mg-based hydrogen storage composite materialMgH2 is a promising hydrogen storage materials with high capacity up to 7.6 wt.%. It is very safe, non-toxic, environmental friendly and easy for storage and delivery. After years of efforts, our research group has developed novel Mg based core-shell structured ultrafine/nano hydrogen storage materials containing small amount of rare earth elements, which show superior hydrogen storage properties and good anti-oxidation ability.
We have developed advanced techniques for production of MgH2 in quite large scale, with the advantages such as high safety, high production efficiency, high purity and low energy consumption. We can produce 6 tons of MgH2 annually with the purity more than 95%. During past several years, 6 invention patents were obtained on the Mg based hydrogen storage materials.
3.Nano-Magnesium Hydride Fuel Cell SystemThe MgH2 fuel cell system uses hydrogen produced from hydrolysis of MgH2 to generate electricity. As a portion of hydrogen in water can be reduced, the actual hydrogen capacity can reach 15.2 wt.% of the MgH2. Our research center has developed new techniques to produce MgH2 in large scale. The technology for hydrolysis of MgH2 in a controlled manner has been developed, thus we have the ability to control the power of the fuel cell system by tailoring the hydrogen generation rate. Such MgH2 fuel cell system has the advantages of high power density (2500Wh/kg for MgH2), fast exchange of fuel, high safety and the recycling of non-toxic product - Mg(OH)2. We have obtained 6 invention patents.
4.Magnetic functional materialsDifferent magnetic functional materials have been developed using advanced solidification technique. Among them，static magnetic solidification technology has been successfully applied to produce high performance Giant Magnetostrictive Materials Tb-Dy-Fe with low cost. Bulk Fe-Ga shape memory alloys has been successfully obtained by melt treatment and high undercooling directional solidification technology. LaFeSi Magnetic Refrigeration Materials and Ni-Mn-X (In、Ga、Sn) multi-functional Heuslar alloys have been fabricated by controlled solidification technology.
These technologies are prominent in energy consumption, production efficiency and environment-friendly. It successfully produced a large scale giant magnetostrictive alloys with a magnetostriction of 1700 ppm. Bulk Fe-Ga shape memory alloys with 8 mm diameter and 7 cm length has been obtained.
Based on this project we have obtained 10 national invention patents and published 100 science-citation-index journal papers in well-known periodicals including Acta Mater, Script Mater, and so on.
5.Dye sensitized solar cellDye-sensitized solar cells are low-cost solar cells, composing photoanode, adsorbed dye molecules, electrolyte and counter electrode. Dye molecules is excited by absorbed photons and generates electron injection into photoanode and can be regenerated by electrons given by electrolyte. We developed new platinum (Pt)-free counter electrode for the cells that got the highest efficiency.
6.Ultra-high Purity Aluminum and AluminaInvented the first set of segregation method purification equipment for high-purity aluminum, which was successfully applied and licensed to several companies to produce 4N5 or higher purity aluminum. Specially, with this patent technology, 5N5 and 6N ultra-high purity Aluminum ingots were firstly fabricated in China, hereby, the raw materials for high purity aluminum spattering target to semiconductor industry can be supplied domestically. Furtherly, it can also be directly hydrolyzed into high-purity alumina.
• The technology has been considered that surpasses similar foreign technologies in terms of energy consumption, purification efficiency and environmental friendliness.
• This patent technology has been rewarded the first prize of Shanghai municipal Invention, granted more than 16 national invention patents.
7.High temperature thermal barrier coatings
• Developed new materials for bond coat, which can serve at higher temperature compared with bond coat of MCrAlY and triple the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) meanwhile.
• Explored an advanced non-contact temperature measurement technique based on luminescence, allowing simultaneous remote temperature sensing over 1200 °C at the ceramic top coat/bond coat interface of the air plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs with a topcoat thickness up to 400 mm.
• Designed an on-line APS manufacturing process monitoring system, which can significantly improve the stability of TBCs’ performance.
8.Composite materials applied for thermal insulation and ablation coatingsHollow ceramic microspheres, fibers, membranes and coils were prepared by a combination method of electro-spraying and non-solvent induced phase separation (ESNP), using a slurry of polymer with zirconia based powders. These ceramic products with highly porous structure have low thermal conductivity, high sintering resistance and weight/strength ratio, which are promising to been applied in thermal protection coatings of spacecraft.
·Published 10 articles in Carbon, Materials & Design and JACS, etc.
·Applied 15 national invention patents with 12 patents authorized.
9.Zirconia nano powderYttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) is one kind of advanced structural and functional ceramic materials. The research group investigated one step hydrothermal route to prepare YSZ nano powder which has several desirable characteristics, such as fine particle size, narrow size distribution ,high purity, good chemical homogeneity, and single crystal structure.
10.Shape Memory Polymer Composite
Shape memory polymers is smart materials that have the ability to complete the transition of ‘original state-deformed state-original state’ induced by temperature change. The composite material can be made into a lightweight and expandable supporting structure, and is applied to an extremely large space structure. It has the advantages of large size, small contracting volume, high deployment precision, good deployment reliability and small deployment vibration, etc., which can meet the vehicle requirements for weight, launch tucked volume.
► Advanced manufacturing
1.Precision Casting TechnologyThe precision casting technology in ISST was invented independently. It has solved three major challenges of large casting including microshrinkage, deformation and oversize through the formation and control of micro-defects, the whole process of tolerance design and dimensional accuracy control, forming a sets of technical systems. It has been successfully applied to military and civil aero-engines.
Using the precision casting technology in ISST has currently produced domestic high quality precision castings of high temperature alloys and stainless which have the largest size, thinnest wall thickness, complex structure. The technology maturity level reaches 8, which can be successfuly used into industrialization.
Awarded 10 Chinese invention patents.
2.High Density Die Casting and Squeeze Casting TechnologyBy eliminating gas in mold cavity during die casting, the porosity and shrinkage in the castings can be effectively reduced. Castings with low porosity ratio, high density and refined microstructure can be also obtained, so that the mechanical properties and surface quality of die castings should be improved. A series die casting Mg/Al alloys with high performance, super vacuum die casting technology and squeeze casting equipment were developed for the application in automobile industry.
With the super-high vacuum level of mold cavity pressure less than 5kPa in 1.5s, the porosity ratio in the castings can be reduced by more than one time compared with traditional die casting. Therefore, the large thin-wall die castings could be heat treated.
6 invention patents were obtained.
3.Forging Technology of Magnesium AlloyBy using self-developed JDM2 high-strength wrought Mg alloy, self-developed semi-continuous casting, half mold isothermal forging and heat treatment technologies, large Mg alloy forgings with a size of 2300mm×300mm×160mm has been developed.
The large Mg alloy forgings have very good mechanical properties, with a tensile ultimate strength about 400MPa, yield strength about 320MPa, elongation about 8%. The forgings have been demo used to a launcher, which successfully completed its ground test and several air flight tests.
4.Field preparation technology of magnesium alloyThe outfield technologies as pulse current, electromagnetic stirring, gas stirring and ultrasonic field were applied to magnesium alloy melt during solidification process (near liquidus), and refines significantly the grain size of magnesium alloy, improves greatly the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy. The efficient outfield preparation technique for magnesium alloy was developed.
5 invention patents were authorized.
5.Rheoforming Technology of High Silicon Aluminum AlloyIn order to solve the problem of coarse shape of the primary silicon phases in hypereutectic high-silicon aluminum alloy, solid-containing slurry was prepared through chemical modification combining with semi-solid stiring treatment, and combined with rheological die-casting / rheological squeeze-casting technology, a significantly refinement of the primary silicon phase was obtained. The average size of the primary silicon after rheological forming could be controlled under 30μm.
The technology has been used in the manufacture of automotive air conditioning compressor cylinders, the elongation of the products improved 100% compare with conventional die-casting, and the products can be used after heat treatment.
2 national invention patents were authorized.
6.Precision CNC spinning technologySelf-developed CNC spinning machine: heavy-duty and high-precision digital cylinder; repeat positioning accuracy ≤ 1.5μm; multi-axis and multi-channel integrated control technology. Self-developed CNC spinning technology: progressive forming or warm forming some metal products with low plasticity and/or complex shapes.
Until to now, we have developed and developed about 100 spinning parts, including stainless steel, aluminum alloy, copper alloy, magnesium alloy and titanium, etc. maximum 12 meters long (tubes), diameter of 1.5 meters (plates), wall thickness of 12 mm (steel) to 40mm (Al alloy).
7.Isothermal Forging TechnologyIsothermal forging is a near net shape forging method, the die and the alloy billets should be heated to the same optimum temperature. This method could decrease the flow stress, improving the ductility with high dimension precision and high utilization ratio of materials, and once-shaping of complex forging, obtaining the high yield strength, stress corrosion resistance and low cycle fatigue property by isothermal forging.
Our laboratory has 6000 tons isothermal forging equipment, it has ability to fabricate small amount of forged billets. Extensive study related to isothermal forging have been made on titanium alloys and titanium matrix composites.
8 invention patents have been authorized.
8.Hot Stamping Technology of High Strength SteelThe steel plate with tensile strength of approximately 500-600MPa is heated up to the austenitization state. Afterward, the plate is quickly moved on the die to be formed and quenched for a reasonable period of time to obtain ultra-high strength. By using hot stamping technology, the strength of parts, weldability, surface hardness, dent resistance and corrosion resistance can be improved greatly, at the same time the required press capacity can be reduced.
·The accurate prediction of springback for high strength steel is put forward with the developed hardening model. An optimization algorithm for robust on stamping, the method for determining ductile fracture parameters and the accurate numerical simulation method for internal hydroforming have been put forward. The developed hot stamping control software has been applied in industry.
·More than ten invention patents.
9.Precision Casting TechnologyDepending on the accumulation of the local deformation formed by single point incremental forming, a predetermined shape can be achieved without special dies. Especially for multi-variety and small-batch of components, the cost can be reduced greatly and the forming efficiency can be improved substantially. Meanwhile, a flexible incremental sheet forming equipment and a tool path generation software have been developed. The typical sheet metal samples of aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloy have been manufactured.
·The incremental sheet forming process of light-weight high-strength metal plate has been developed. The manufacturing capability of small-batch production but difficult-to-deform parts in aerospace and the development capability of special equipment have been formed.
·More than ten invention patents.
10.Advanced Manufacturing Simulation TechnologyBased on the commercial CAD/CAE software platform, targeted development of the model of numerical simulation system and processing technology, the hot forming process simulation, the prediction of structural mechanics of product design, dynamics, thermodynamics performance have been realized. At the same time the optimum parameters of the actual product design, manufacturing and service process are provided. The performance and quality of the products can be improved, and the cost can be reduced substantially.
·The numerical predictions of the defects and microstructure evolution of the large forgings including AP1000 nuclear power plant and the nuclear steam generator head have been carried out successfully. The aerodynamic simulation and optimization of the high speed EMU train is completed. The simulation of the lifetime and safety of the vehicle structure, hub and air bag has been realized.
·4 invention patents.
11.High Power Laser WeldingInteraction mechanisms between laser and various materials are investigated, and can be used to realize welding and joining between high-temperature, high-strength, high-performance materials, functional materials, composite materials, ceramic materials and biological materials. Laser welding for large component, especially application on shipbuilding and large launch equipment manufacturing technology is investigated and engineering application field of high power laser processing is expanded.
·Developed equipment systems and single pass welding technology for medium-thick plate and multi-layer and multi-pass welding technology for thick plate of key equipments of nuclear power, ultra-super critical thermal power, warship, offshore structures and etc.
·19 inventions patents.
·First prize of the China Machinery Industry Science and Technology Award.
12.Ultralow Temperature Welding TechniqueAiming at the ultralow temperature (-163℃) metal materials joining of liquid cargo containment system and land-based tanks in the LNG ship, FCAW, alternating square wave current SAW and laser welding method were adopted to solve the crucial welding technology of the ultralow temperature similar/dissimilar materials. The mechanical properties testing and assessment platform of metal materials and welding joints in the ultralow temperature environment were established.
·High efficiency welding challenge was solved for ultralow temperature metal materials. In ultralow temperature environment, the strength, toughness testing and assessment of welding joints was carried out.
·3 invention patents.
13.Intelligentized Robotic Welding TechnologyAimed at the bottleneck of the technology applications of the teaching-playback robots, the local environment autonomous intelligent welding robot LAIWR system is developed to realize the integration of the key technology systems-the environment identification, initial welding position leading, weld tracking, weld penetration control and weld quality intelligent control of robots, etc. in local space work.
·Realize the integration of the key technology systems based on vision sensing such as robot full position movement control, welding environment identification, trajectory correction and autonomous welding.
·Have applied for 11 national invention patents, six of which have been authorized, and have acquired three software copyright.
14.Smart welding manufacturingArc welding robot as the research core, welding intelligent manufacturing engineering has been developed. The key technologies are as follows:
Primary technology: a knowledge based on dynamic joining process, machine vision and intelligent calculation, intelligent control
Technical support: intelligent arc welding robot, flexible manufacturing system, intelligent welding technology
Application results: intelligent welding robot, arc welding robot system integration
• 30 invention patents.
• Published over 400 SCI indexed scientific papers, and over 100 EI indexed research papers.
• The research results were published in the book Robotic Welding, Intelligence and Automation” and “Intelligentized Technology for Arc Welding Dynamic Process”.
15.Welding numerical simulation and virtual manufacturingActively engaging in the research on design and numerical simulation of welding structure, simulation module and code were developed by considering welding residual stress and train, phase transformation, and multi-field coupling, etc. In order to meet the requirements of developing advanced materials and processing technologies with high performance, high reliability and low cost, a multi-scale virtual manufacturing plat was established, to supply directional, general and crucial theoretical basis and technical support.
• 5 invention patents
• Published over 100 SCI indexed scientific papers, and over 30 EI indexed research papers.
16.Lightweight Vehicle Joining Technology & SystemBase on the research of welding process and equipment in laser welding, resistance welding, friction stir welding and arc welding and etc., the key technologies were achieved in joining vehicles of Al-steel dissimilar materials, advanced super high strength steel plate by resistance spot welding, arc welding and laser welding, which has provided the technical guarantee for the lightweight of vehicles.
The design and integration of automatic equipment system for vehicle lightweight material connection robot, applied in laser welding and cutting, advanced arc welding, resistance spot welding, self-piercing riveting (SPR), stud welding, flow drill screw (FDS) and etc., were made.
4 invention patents.
17.Laser Surface Modification TechnologyCladding layer with better performance than matrix by laser peening, laser cladding, laser surface alloying and plasma spraying with laser surface melting was manufactured, which enables the component with high performance including high temperature resistance, anti-corrosion, wear resistance, anti-fatigue and radiation protection, etc.. Surface modification and strengthening of various materials were conducted, leading the laser surface modification to be an advanced materials manufacturing technology.
·3D model reconstruction, scanning path planning and temperature accumulation controlling was set up. These technologies on blade, roller, pump valve, crankshaft and mould were applied to improve their performance greatly including high temperature resistance, anti-corrosion, wear resistance, anti-fatigue and radiation protection, etc..
·First prize of the China Machinery Industry Science and Technology Award.
15 invention patents.
18.Additive Manufacturing Restoration and Precision Finishing Technology for Turbine AirfoilsIn the area of additive manufacturing restoration and 3D grinding and polishing, for the first time a knowledge based on-line compensated sensing and control method has been developed to overcome the bottleneck arising from airfoil distortion, part-to-part difference, randomness of repair regions, poor machinability of Inconel superalloys and sever tool wear. Develop novel adaptive welding and grinding/polishing techniques for distorted free form airfoil surface. Realized automated robotic grinding/polishing system for aeroenigne turbine airfoils, which is considered as the first of kind in the world.
• Five invention patents, including “Method of Determining Shape Data", US Patent No. 7,433,799 B2.
• Published over 20 SCI indexed scientific papers, and over 20 EI indexed research papers.
• The research results were published in the book “Advanced Automation Techniques in Adaptive Material Processing”, ISBN 981-02-4902-0, World Scientific.
19.Intelligent Heat Treatment Technology
With the core of computer numerical simulation and by prediction of the evolution of the temperature, microstructure and stress/strain during process, Intelligent Heat Treatment Technology achieves to design and optimize the heat treatment process and equipment, intelligently control the heat treatment process and precisely tune the microstructures and mechanical properties of the workpieces. It has been widely applied in the high-end equipment for nuclear power, thermal power and engineering machinery.
• One-time success of heat treatment of the first set of AP1000 nuclear power heavy forging, up to the world-class level; successfully designed the heat treatment process for the 1000MW ultra-supercritical HP-IP rotor, breaking up the international monopoly.
• Won the second prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award, and the first prize of the Technological Invention Award by Ministry of Education.
• 5 sets of software developed and 20+ invention patents issued.
20.Water-air alternative timed quenching (ATQ) technologyWater-air alternative timed quenching (ATQ) technology comprises the design of both process and equipment. ATQ process uses clean water and air as quenchant. The combination of water with strong cooling ability and air with weak cooling ability can replace the quenching usually by oil or aqueous polymer solution in engineering. Based on the finite element simulations of temperature field, transformation field and stress field, the time of both water cooling and air cooling can be properly designed and precisely controlled so that ATQ technology can effectively avoid the cracking of alloying components and ensure their mechanical properties. ATQ technology with saving energy and environmental protection has been successfully applied in dozens of domestic major industries.
ATQ technology achieves The First Prize of Technical Invention of Ministry of Education, The First Prize of Scientific and Technological Advancement in Metallurgical Industry, The Second Prize of Scientific and Technological Advancement of China National Machinery Industry and Excellence Award of Chinese Patent, and obtains more than 30 invention patents.
21.Electromagnetic PurificationTechnology of Molten AluminumThe key melt purification technology necessarily used for producing high-performance industrial aluminum can remove fine inclusions (particle size <10μm) which are difficultly removed by normal filtration methods. It significantly improves the processing performance and surface quality of the material as well as its the mechanical properties such as plasticity and fatigue resistance.
The content of inclusions after electromagnetism purification can be reduced to 0.02 ml2 /kg which reaches the international advanced level by using the recognized PoDFA detection device in the international aluminum industry.
7 Chinese invention patents and 1 U.S. patent have been received, and 21 SCI journal papers have been published. It won the second prize of National Technological Invention, the First Prize of Shanghai Technological Invention and the second prize of China Non-Ferrous Industrial Science and Technology respectively.
22.Residual Stress Analysis and Safety Assessment of Equipment partsThe performance of metal parts is greatly influenced by machining residual stress. By measuring the changes of residual stress and XRD profile at key points of the components, we can evaluate the plastic deformation and damage degree in the relevant area, monitor the service safety of important equipment, estimate their life and optimize the design and machining process of the components.
The magnitude and distribution of the residual stress of micro parts can be analyzed in micron area, field measurement and assessment of large components can be implemented by using portable X-ray stress analyzer.
Possessed 20 invention patents, published 7 monographs.
23.Shot Peening Technology of Equipment partsShot peening treatment is carried out by bombarding the surface of a component with high velocity particles that result in a thin layer of cold plastic deformation near the surface. This plastic deformation induces an isotropically distributed residual compressive stress, which is generally ascribed to the improvement of fatigue strength and fatigue life of the component.
By using the technology of computer numerical simulation, we can analyze the magnitude and distribution character of residual compressive stress in the components, and predict the suitable shot peening parameters. According to the production situation, the process specifications of shot peening and quality assurance of shot peening products can be created.
Possessed 20 invention patents, published 7 monographs.