A Review on Functional Micro- and Nano- materials in the Field of in Vitro Diagnosis was Published in Advanced Materials by Prof. Li Wanwan's Team
Multiplexed biodetection, which refers to the simultaneous detection of a series of targets within a complex biological mixture, has many advantages over single-factor biodetection and is highly relevant to both human health issues and advancements in the life sciences. However, many key problems with current multiplexed biodetection strategies remain unresolved and they are summarized as 1) generating sufficient signal to label targets, 2) improving the signal-to-noise ratio to ensure total detection sensitivity, and 3) simplifying the detection process to reduce the time and labor costs of multiple target detection. Recently, Prof. Li Wanwan of State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, together with Prof. Cui Daxiang of School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering and Prof. Chen Xiaoyuan of National University of Singapore, published a review entitled "functional micro - / nanomaterials for multiplexed biodetection" in the form of frontispiece in the international famous academic journal Advanced Materials.
This review introduces newly designed micro- and nanomaterials and discusses how structure design and performance control of these materials can help solve many of the existing challenges in the area of multiplexed biodetection. The first key issue is how to generate a sufficient number of distinct signals and construct coding library with high capacity. individually distinguishable by detection instruments, to represent the desired range of biological targets. The level of discrimination between signals directly determines the resolution, speed and accuracy of the detection protocol. Since traditional organic ﬂuorescent dyes are limited in the number of coding signals, two main strategies have been employed to increase coding signal quantities. One approach focuses on optical coding and seeks to develop a new kind of optical material with narrower signal peaks, so as to reduce overlap and improve discrimination between signals. The other approach is to change the type of coding signal; this includes the development of non-optical signals, as well as the combination of diﬀerent types of coding dimensions in order to simultaneously detect more targets.
The second key issue is to improve the performance of multiplexed biodetection. To some extent, the sensitivity requirements of multiplexed biodetection are higher than those of single-plexed biodetection, because multiple targets with various detection limits must be detected simultaneously. There are two main ways to improve detection sensitivity: one is to improve signal value, and the other is to reduce background noise.
Signal value can be improved by particle-based signal amplification strategy, intrinsic property optimization and signal amplification effect. Background noise can be decreased by detection without excitation wavelength, use of long-wavelength excitation light, use of the time-gating method to reject interference signal and direct separation of the target from the complex sample.
In addition to the three key issues discussed above, the further development of nanotechnology, material chemistry combined with AI technology and high-performance computing is also one of the important directions. The field of multiplexed biodetection integrates multiple disciplines such as materials, chemistry, biology, electronics and machinery, and requires a high degree of cooperation. With more sophisticated material design and more superior detection platforms emerging in the field of multiplexed biodetection, these technologies will effectively promote disease prevention and diagnosis, the sustainable development of various "omics" and the realization of personalized medical treatment.
Dr. Liu Xinyi is the first author. Prof. Li Wanwan of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Prof. Cui Daxiang of Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Prof. Chen Xiaoyuan of the National University of Singapore are the co- corresponding authors. The related work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai, Clinical Research Plan of SHDC and Medicine & Engineering Cross Research Foundation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.